Introduction to Household Arts
By definition, household arts incorporate all activities and facilities related to material life inside the housing and process techniques that are intended to facilitate domestic tasks and contribute to the comfort.
In the United States, Catherine Beecher (1800-1876) highlights the need for the house to be organized and published in 1869 “House of the American Woman”. This book shows the influence of vehicles on the technical development of housing, for example, the design and furnishing of kitchens in ships or wagons by George Pullman.
In France, to overcome the disorders caused by social and economic changes of the second half of the nineteenth century, housewife education lessons are advocated. Indeed, it is believed that the lack of mastery of the role of housewife is one of the causes of these disorders. Teaching these rules giving values and home science concepts should be involved in recovering the situation, recognizing the essential role of the “modern woman” whose activity is “on the one hand to happiness and the prosperity of the family, and also to work that ensures its existence.”
Augusta Moll-Weiss founded in 1904 the “School of mothers”. She teaches home economics, hygiene, cooking, caring for children and ill persons (and exercises them), among other things, sewing and ironing. She considers this learning as “a practical and altruistic education” to “complete the theoretical and personal education already received.”
The First World War ended to break the codes and rules of society.
The notion of “Household Arts” takes shape in the interwar period. The difficulties to stay and eat properly create, by reaction, a desire to improve the comfort of life in the higher classes.
Paulette Bernège is one of the first to make the promotion of the use of household appliances to reduce the arduousness of housework. It should be noted that at the time these items are purchased by men for their wives, whenever they are from the working class, bourgeois or more wealthy. They remain dependent on their husbands.
The growing interest in habitat comfort leads to the creation of the “Salon des Arts Ménagers” (domestic arts fair) in Paris in 1923.
Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-1878) was an American educator. She is known for her fight for women’s education and for the integration of kindergarten in raising children. She is a pioneer in the world of design, for her thoughts on the rationalization of movements and gestures of the housewife in the home. She argues the merits of the abolition of slavery. She wrote some treaties in 1840, among them the best-selling “American Woman’s Home: Or, Principles of Domestic Science.”
Augusta Moll-Weiss (1863-1946) is the Mother School founder. She wants to offer young French women an education of concepts they need to know before marriage. Augusta Moll made literary and scientific studies but when she wanted to get a license, her marriage put an end to her studies. The bride then devoted herself to her family and very soon became mother of three children. The death of her husband upset her situation and forced her to earn a living and to assume alone the tasks of mother, homework and head of household.
“Le Salon des Arts Ménager” (Homemaking Exhibition)
In 1923, under the leadership of Jules-Louis Breton, (Minister of Health, assistance and social welfare, creator and first director of the National Office for Scientific and Industrial Research and inventions), opens in a barrack of the Fair of Paris in the Champs de Mars the “Salon des appareils ménagers” ( household appliances fair). This one is dedicated to the latest innovations and ongoing research in this area.
It highlights and rewards the inventors of the best appliances.
Its growing success led it to settle at the Grand Palais in 1926 in its most famous name “Salons des Arts Ménagers.”
The first Peugeot production
The first knives appeared as raw fragments of flint or obsidian about 25 000 years ago. The knife was used as a tool but also as a weapon. Since the Bronze Age, the knives are made of metal and are provided with a handle. The Romans made the first raw steel blades.
Many types of utility knives exist particularly in the field of construction and agriculture.
For household use, in the fourteenth century, the knives had a pointed tip and were commonly used as forks. When these ones appeared, the tips of knives rounded to differentiate uses.
Knives come in various shapes according countries, regions or the type of cooking. The different culinary traditions consist of a series of more or less knives. Thus, we find knives in general use as choppers, boners, choppers and knives for more specialized use such as knives for bread, ham, salmon …
The small cutlery is part of the industrial branch of rolled products, like saw blades. On order, Peugeot Frères can manufacture cheese knives, cod knives or saws-knives for ham.
Big Peugeot cutlery utensils directly come from the tooling branch in wrought iron. Thus, in the nineteenth century, it is possible to provide knife to break the sugar loaves in various cleavers and choppers or blade for cutting bread. After the First World War, a blade is associated with a frame to form a bread knife on base.
The ancestor of iron is much older than one might expect. It appeared when the prehistoric man between 130,000 and 70,000 years before our age, began to manufacture garments of skin sewn with sinew threaded into bone needles. Archaeologists find that they fold seams not to hurt the skin using a rock as a support and a carefully polished mammoth bones that can be considered as a primitive form of smoother.
It is in China that iron appears in the first century BC: metal pans filled with charcoal were used to smooth tissue. From the seventeenth century, in Europe, we began to use iron tools in triangular shape with a handle heated in a fire. Subsequently, we used a tin filled with hot coals periodically aerated thanks to an attached a bellow attached. Even if they are used across the Atlantic until the beginning of the twentieth century,, in France, the Encyclopedia mentions two types of irons: simple irons, mentioned above, and irons in cage. They are heated by inserting an iron core heated blank, in its hollow body. At that time, they are handcrafted by toolmakers that build on and adjust the metal elements.
Steel founder since 1810, Peugeot manufactures irons since the mid nineteenth century, based on the French model said cage. Indeed, Peugeot is an expert in the melt of cast iron and steel.
At the end of the nineteenth century, Peugeot offers in its catalog, no less than 4 sizes of irons delivered with two cores. When the first is in use, the second is on fire, allowing an exchange of cores and thus continue its work without having to wait. For more convenience, irons holders are also sold with the irons.
The iron will evaluate with the use of electricity, and the addition of the use of steam during the twentieth and integrating the family of electric household appliances. To be continued…
The Coffee Mill
History of Coffee and Coffee Mill
Coffee was introduced in Europe around 1600, probably by Venetian merchants. In 1615, consumption has become common in the City of Doges that imports grain from Egypt. Dutch and English traders begin to make it known it in their country. It is not consumed in the south of France before the mid-seventeenth century and the drink arrived in 1669 only in Paris.
The attraction for coffee calls for the invention of a specific object, to grind the roasted grain, while maintaining maximum aromas.
Originally, the coffee is ground using a mortar. Nevertheless, spice importers, who will be among the first to import coffee, will highlight that the spice mills, once adapted, could fill this office and be used for grinding the coffee.
The early mills, called coffee mills, appear in Europe and Turkey in the seventeenth century. In France, the first mills are known under the name of “Louis XIV model”. The frame is made of a block of wood, often walnut, wherein the mechanism is inserted. Homemade (artisanal manufacturing), it is made on request, for steelworkers.
During the eighteenth, coffee spreads. The mills are fitted with a table fixing system for ease of use and true consecration, are described in the Encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert.
The nineteenth century saw the coffee democratize, favored by the industrial era that puts the coffee grinders accessible to all. The continental blockade imposed by Napoleon I in 1806 interrupted trade in exotic products like coffee, because the English retaliation on commercial vessels of the European continent. Stocks accumulate. With the end of the first empire, these stocks are released and this causes the collapse of market prices. Coffee is available to all budgets. Progress in the cast steel will allow true industrialization of the manufacture of counter mills for groceries or household mills. Since 1840, Peugeot is needed in this new market.
The Grinders Peugeot
The first Peugeot coffee grinders appear around 1840 and production quickly gaining strong to reach, in 1889, 350,000 units, which is about 1,000 mills produced daily.
In over a century of production, millions of mills will be sold on every continent. Wood, cast iron, metal, Bakelite, wall or electric, coffee, pepper, cereal, and even … poppy, they allowed the growth of the company before the birth of the automobile and are currently collectibles for fans of popular art.
That is the mechanism that made the reputation of Peugeot mills. The “nuts” and “bowl” made of hardened steel are forged and the teeth are milled in a way that they cut without crushing the material to grind. This patent ensures lifetime mechanisms mills of Lion Brand.
After its early success with this new type of mill, Peugeot takes reverse the way that turned mills spice grinder. The base mill, available in 11 sizes, is designed to reduce, not coffee, but sugar, powdered. Indeed, sugar was sold as a block, commonly called Sugarloaf, since it was almost impossible to keep it dry enough to sell the powder.
Secondly, with the mastery of the manufacturing process, Peugeot will progressively miniaturize its grinding mechanism to propose pepper or pepper mills.
Evolution of Moulins from 1840 to 1918
The R or I model was manufactured from 1840 to 1936 is nearly a century. The box is stained beech, crown bronze (R) or painted green (I) and the polished handle. It is best known mills Lion.
From 1870, Peugeot offers a range of coffee grinders which the box is sheet metal, wood way. The use of metal, then the full aluminum range by providing a response to the request of hygienic products. The range is diversifying. The sheet is first cut with shears. The shaping of these sheet metal parts, called “blanks” is made by stamping or by stapling.
A range to grind: A broad output
In 1899, no fewer than nine models of wooden mills, available up to 11 sizes, 4 versions of a model says Belgian, each available in 3 sizes and 6 models sheet. Added to the gear mills, miniature windmills for children and table mills and pepper shakers.
Besides the domestic coffee grinders, mills appear groceries or heavy duty, cast iron. Distributed in 5 families and designated by letters A – B – C – D – E. The Model A is vertical gears and nuts, B is a special model for sugar, C is horizontal walnut with drawer receptacle, D is based on the model C without receptacle and E is a wall model.
Larger models of families C – D – E is sold under the name of crushers for seeds. To complete the range, there is also a mill cast iron fluted rollers for pharmacists and druggists.
Evolution of Moulins from 1918 to 1950
The post-war recovery
At the end of World War I, the Peugeot Frères company resume their prewar production and therefore the production mills. It is time for the reconstruction of production tools and the simplification of the range of productions. Exit the large sizes of wooden mills (6-9). Same thing for iron mills, although some models are sold electrically powered.
In the early 1920s appears a wall mill, the mill-applied, known as the “mailbox”. It will be followed by earthenware (ceramic / faïence) mills. With the Roaring (Golden) Twenties, the forms evolve and new models appear as lacquered wood grain mills. The range of earthenware mills grows with the appearance of decorated hoppers.
During the Second World War, production refocuses on consensual models. Only the “cubic” mills appear during this period. They will be at the origin of the models, in wood or stainless steel, published after the war.
After the Second World War, Peugeot launches into a new activity: the production of household appliances …
Definition: As the name suggests, a sewing machine is an industrial or domestic use machine that can sew mechanically. It executes stitching thanks to two threads, one of which is threaded over a needle and the other comes from a shuttle (or lockstitch).
The first sewing machines appear in the nineteenth century. They were mechanical and set in motion manually. The pioneers in this field are the American Elias Howe, the German Balthasar Krems, the Englishman Thomas Saint Joseph and the Austrian Madersperger. Their machines, complex to use, relegate them into oblivion …
The first truly practical machine is assigned to a French, Barthélemy Thimonnier, a tailor living in the Lyon region. He filed in 1830 the first patent for a “mechanical sewing” or “craft sewing.” It was a wooden machine with continuous wire, chain stitch sewing 200 stitches per minute.
80 machines are built to meet a uniform command of the French army. At that time, inventions merely reproduce the movement of the hand, such as the machine Madersperger named “The hand stitching.”
A true revolution in the world of mechanical sewing in 1934: American Walter Hunt uses a shuttle (lockstitch), and the stitching is now done through two threads. Perfected by Howe, who patented his invention in 1846, the machine does not meet the expected success. Howe went into exile in England to try to give new impetus to his business.
In 1851, one of his machines is being repaired at Isaac Merrit Singer’s place. Singer perfects it and used it to file a new patent and found his company: IM Singer & Co. Unlike Howe, his sewing machine for home use is a great success.
In France, during the Second Empire, France is no exception. New technological revolution: the first sewing machine with a shuttle (lockstitch), working with the foot pedal was patented by Pierre Cobet in 1868. This patent was bought by Constant Peugeot who has a good business of manufacturing spinning parts in Audincourt (Doubs) and was engaged in the manufacture of sewing machines a year earlier.
The Peugeot Sewing Machines
Production of textile Peugeot
The four Peugeot brothers settled and founded their companies in 1810.
The two eldest, Jean-Pierre and Jean-Frédéric, combine and transform the grain mill of Sous-Cratet in a steel foundry and cold rolling facility. The plant uses water power provided by the Gland, small stream that runs through Hérimoncourt, and was turning the old mill.
Both cadets,Charles and Jacques, create a cotton mill in La Chapotte, plant downstream Sous-Cratet on the town of Hérimoncourt. It starts to run from 1805. It started modestly with 12 workers. From 1808-1809, it makes working 90 spinners and 200 partially pins driven by water power, which produce 8 tons of yarn (single or textile) delivered to Indian manufacturers of Mulhouse. On the sidelines of this production, a melt of iron pins workshop for weaving looms is also activated. In 1813, they built a second mill in Audincourt.
The end of textile:
In 1817, cotton yarn production is 45 tonnes. It is more than 150 tonnes three years later.
However, the death, in quick succession, of Jean Jacques Peugeot in 1818 followed by the death of his brother eleven months later, carried both by typhus, poses serious questions for the future of the company and undermines the future of the company “Peugeot Frères & Cie.” The heirs of these, too young, inexperienced, will not know how to cope with various crises, financial or family to follow. The verdict is final, 6 November 1837 and financial managers must resolve to declare bankruptcy case. Is this the end of the textile industry? Not really, less than three years later, Constant Peugeot will resurrect it in another form …
The rebirth of a brand or the legacy of the textile:
Taking the opportunity of the sale of certain assets of Peugeot Brothers & Co, Constant Peugeot, a son of Jean-Jacques, retrieves manufacturing machinery textile machine parts and factory Sub-Roche. He founded in 1830 the company Peugeot Constant & Cie.
Heir to the textile industry, he is not interested in cotton but in the factory parts loom that existed on the margins of the company of his grandfather. The timely recovery of the textile sector will help in this project.
The Constant affair grows enormously and his fame crosses borders since the house Peugeot Constant & Cie exports throughout Europe: it is the Peugeot branch the most prominent of the moment. This success is due to several factors such as assured technical expertise, efficient workforce and a favorable economic environment that carries the textile markets and pushes the mechanization of factories. In the mid nineteenth century, Peugeot Constant & Cie provides nearly three-quarters of the production of textile machinery equipment Doubs. Why stop?
The sewing machine
In the 1850s, Peugeot Constant & Co. is interested in something new: the sewing machine. This study is wise, reasoned and in line with the traditional production of textile machinery equipment. The first model was launched in 1867. In 1876, sewing machines Peugeot won the gold medal of the World Exhibition in Paris. They were in competition with Singer, Grover, Wilcox or Opel. The drive mechanism of the sewing machine was composed of a double pedal. At the time, some jeered the doubtful effect of the double crank capable of “giving sensations through its smooth and regular movement.” Exit the dual pedals, Peugeot is developing training by moving plate.
Constant Armand Peugeot was born July 22, 1809 in Hérimoncourt, died December 20, 1877 in Valentigney. Constant Peugeot was born in La Chapotte (in Hérimoncourt), where his father and uncle run a cotton mill. But he becomes quite young orphan.
His two cousins, Charles and Victor try to resume paternal matter but the crisis of 1829-1832 textile affects hard. In January 1829, bankruptcy is declared and the factories of La Chapotte, Audincourt and Villard-les-Blamont are sold. The first was bought by Peugeot uncles of Constant, the older brothers of his father, Jacques Peugeot. During all these years, Constant Peugeot is sent to Nancy for his studies. He entered later at Polytechnic School. He obtained his engineering degree in Civil Engineering in 1830. As soon resigned from the administration, he returns to the country, to try to revive a company with his cousins ruined by the bankruptcy of the mill. Upon his return to Hérimoncourt he founded, in 1830, the company Peugeot Constant & Co. with the financial support of his cousins.
He can buy for a low price, the “Equipment for manufacturing mills pins” to the new owners of the factory of Audincourt who are not interested in this material. Constant arrange the mill of Remond de Sous-Roche, in Valentigney, in front of their former factory of Audincourt. So he starts to make “spare parts for all species of cotton spinning, wool, silk and linen.” The beginnings were modest as the capital injection was limited. He employs the first years ten workers producing pins and grooved rollers.
In 1836 he married Caroline Japy.
The plant grows: in 1840, 150 workers operate 3 forges and 148 mechanical machines. They produce 150,000 spindles spinning, 18,000 cylinders 2,400 looms that are sold in France, Belgium, Germany and even Spain. His work was rewarded with a silver medal at the Industrial Products Exhibition held in Paris in 1845.
Constant is an inventor who constantly perfecting his machines and products. In particular, he finds a way to replace the old system of motion transmission ropes to pins by a screw provided with a clutch that can disengage them from each other without stopping them all.
In 1867 he began making sewing machines of different models for lingerie, clothing, embroidery, shoe repair, etc.
Evolution of sewing machines 1867-1945
Peugeot Constant & Cie (1867-1897)
Different models are built for lingerie, tailoring, embroidery, shoemaking, etc …
Many patents are filed including the one of 1869 placing vertically the coil (thread reel) and that of the 1878 for “Frame of Salon” called Guéridon (pedestal). That same year, the plant takes a considerable extent and employs 700 people all types of activities combined.
Peugeot – Japy & Cie (1897-1908)
Since the death of Constant Peugeot, and probably at the instigation of his son-in-law and heir Philippe Japy (Constant and his wife had two daughters), the company gradually passes under the ownership of Japy company in Beaucourt (near Belfort). The name of the company changes and becomes Peugeot Japy & Co.
Peugeot Brothers (1908-1939)
A few years later, in 1908, the Sons of Peugeot Brothers take over the sewing machine activity. Therefore, the Lion appears on the frame and body of the machines. From 1920, the machines can be equipped upon request with an electric motor. In 1929, the first fully electric model appeared.
Production will cease, like many others, at the dawn of the Second World War.
The washing machine
Before the washing machine: Inseparable from the contemporary view of the consumer society, essential modern appliances, second most present equipment in the home after the refrigerator, the washing machine has continually evolved since its appearance.
In the second half of the Middle Ages, the laundry is handy washed by the strength of washerwomen (laundrywomen) whose work is mainly manual with the help of a beater, along streams and rivers or in a “wash-house” (laundry place in the village).
This job allowed those who exercised it (for individuals) to meet and work doing, to discuss the latest village news …
This work remains challenging, the washerwomen passing their days on knees. If in summer the water can be refreshing, consider that in winter they had to break the ice to access water. For cleaning, the laundry is rubbed and beaten with a wooden board or on stones, washed with soap and bleached using coal.
The invention of the washing machine:
The first patent related to the construction of machines capable of washing clothes mechanically, are filed at the end of the eighteenth century. The depositary is the American Nathaniel Briggs, from New Hampshire. However, this invention is due to Jacob Christian Schäffer who is the real author. One of the first machines built consists of a wooden box, called “romper” (wading pool), performing a movement of back and forth thanks to a crank.
The evolution is slow, the washing machine is not emulated. One seeks to mechanically reproduce the gesture of the washerwoman. In the mid nineteenth century appears a new type of machine that consists of a small wooden barrel in which rotate the blades driven, again, by a crank. Hot water poured into the machine allowed the linen to be washed through the movement of the water against the textile fibers.
The “drum-type” washing machine with electric drive appears around 1910.
In France, the washing machine is exhibited at “Salon des Arts Ménagers” (Ideal Home Exhibition) in Paris in the late 1920s. Therefore it gradually democratized itself to the detriment of washerwomen whose job disappeared during the twentieth century.
Washing machines Peugeot
During the 1920s, the company Peugeot Frères manufactures washing machines. The patented system “Gyor” that equipped these machines is certainly derived from the R. Guyot society, also responsible for the distribution of the appliances.
The production consists of machines for “city”, “country” and “hotel”.
Machines for “city”
Machines number 1 and 2 for gas stove or cooking device (or stove sold in option) equipped with a copper drum replacing galvanized drum.
The machines for “campaign”
Machines number 3 and 4 with coal or wood-burning fireplace. The machine number 4 could be equipped with an inverter generator that provided the rotation of the washing drum in both directions and thus suppressed handling.
The Machines for “hotel”
The machine number 5, with very high capacity (16 sheets) and a fireplace or coal and electric drive.
Accessories: Some accessories related to washing machine were also offered in the catalog. Small hand dryers to be fixed on the cover of the machine for serving as a wring (spin) box, a wringer-centrifuge of high capacity that can wring (spin) 50 kg of laundry per hour, or even an ironing machine for communities with a working 1 m width of ironing.
Washing machines evolution
Production of washing machines Peugeot stopped in early 1930s. With the global economic crisis, Peugeot is refocusing on its most profitable activities.
The household electric appliances
Definition: these appliances represent all the electrical appliances and equipment for household use.
They appear in the early twentieth century in the United States. The control of energy, advanced techniques and the miniaturization of electric motors are progress that will help make them accessible to the greatest number. The revolution of the domestic arts is mainly in the kitchen.
It is divided into two separate branches: the small and large home appliances.
Small appliances are for food preparation, making coffee, ironing, cleaning floors, hygiene and body care. Large appliances are for cooking, refrigeration and washing.
The Peugeot household electric appliances
After the mills powered cast, appears in 1930 the automatic household model No. 1. This one was declined in mills for hotels No. 2 and No. 3 for merchants. These mills are quite bulky, because their drive is external to the body of the mill and motored by a belt.
The electric mill, called domestic, appears in 1952. The model Lion will be followed two years later by the Squirrel model. Then come after the mills Weekend, Ric, the series of Ruby, the young lion, the Rally (specially designed by the designer Roger Tallon) and the models 925 and 926.
The Peugimix or the revolution of the food processor:
The answer to a need: the culinary art is a set of traditions that, in every nation, in every region of the country, in every family, have perpetuated generation to generation for centuries. But the material conditions of existence have evolved. It was necessary that the kitchen preparation methods evolve in parallel, the food preparation time can be reduced to an absolute minimum, so that at the family home these precious traditions are not likely to be abandoned. That is what has responded and in a masterly way by the scale and development of the solution, the “spare block” Peugeot. This “Peugimix” is the first device/appliance of its kind designed and produced in France, small electro-cooking machine very multiple use, as convenient, accurate and robust and aesthetic.
Its composition and functions: Peugimix essentially consists of a powerful “motor-head” speed controller equipped with drummers working in bowls, the motor head and bowls adapting to a particular carrier. It is this set Mixer-Mixer-Kneader which is the most original part of the design. Quickly and effortlessly, it will achieve the most useful, the most difficult, the longest and most tiring culinary preparations we had to do so far in hand. In addition, a number of accessories can be mounted on the engine head. They allow other preparations that will reduce all the time spent in the kitchen. Two of them, a chopper and rasps, are particularly interesting. Others, mixer, grinder and tripods, make other no less popular services.
A variety of small household appliances:
Since its creation The Peugeot Brothers company is based onuse upon the quality of its production to make advertising. In 1960, the slogan of Lion Brand’s “from tools to the automotive … Peugeot, the quality we do not argue.” This includes all products, including household items, branch known for the famous coffee grinders. In 1958, Peugeot appealed to Roger Tallon to refresh the design of its small appliance and combine beauty with robustness. Thus, several devices will be produced on the basis of his drawings, as the electric mixer “Chantilly” to modern and elegant lines, the electric coffee grinder “Rally” rational and harmonious design as electric polisher brush “Norly”. We find these innovative lines in the range redesigned at this time, whether on the family electric grinder or food processor famous electro-Peugimix: 7 devices in 1.